The ideal electronic component for switching circuits and can also be used as an amplifier.
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The transistor is a circuit element that can be used as an electrically operated switch. It is made of semiconductor materials, has three terminals and can interrupt or close the circuit between two terminals depending on the control applied to the control pin.
There are two common types of transistors: bipolar and field effect.
The image shows the bipolar transistor symbol (left) and an illustration of a universal transistor (right). There are two types of transistors: NPN and PNP (depending on the type of semiconductor material). Its terminals are: B - Base C - Collector E - Emitter
The base will be used to control the transistor. Initially, it will not drive the current (between C and E). If the base-emitter voltage exceeds an opening threshold (about 0.65 V), it will absorb the current through the base and let it pass (almost) freely between C and E. The image shows the equivalent symbols of field effect transistors (FET - Field Effect Transistor). They behave similarly with one exception: they do not absorb energy constantly after they are open (unlike the bipolar transistor). Toggle faster, but their disadvantage is that for the command, a higher voltage is required on Gate (Gate) - 1.8 ~ 10 V.
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